You will complete one entry in this journal.  Choose a work of art from your reading in each module and complete an art critique.  For each entry you should have four distinct (Describe, Analyze, Interpret, Evaluate) labeled sections with at least 5 sentences per section (for a total of at least 20 sentences).  
Use this attached document “4 Steps to Critiquing Art” to use as a guide as you write each entry.

4 Steps to Critiquing Art Work
Developed by Edmund Feldman


Description


­



Analysis



­


Interpretation


­



Evaluation



Describe

This
stage
is
like
taking
inventory.
You
want
to
come
up
with
a
list
of
everything
you
see
in
the

work.
Stick
to
the
facts.
Imagine
that
you
are
describing
the
artwork
to
someone
over
the

telephone.

Express
what
you
see
in
detail.


Analyze

Try
to
figure
out
what
the
artist
has
done
to
achieve
certain
effects.
Consider
different
elements

and
principles
used
by
the
artist
and
why
the
artist
might
have
chosen
to
incorporate
these

essentials.


• Questions
to
consider:

o Use
the
vocabulary
you
learned
in
class.
For
example,
if
you’re
looking
at
mostly


red,
yellow
and
blue
refer
to
the
colors
as
primary
colors.

o How
are
the
elements
of
art
(color,
shape,
line,
texture,
space,
form,
value)
and


the
principles
of
design
(balance,
harmony,
emphasis,
movement/rhythm,
unity,

variety)
used
in
this
artwork?


o What
do
you
notice
about
the
artist’s
choice
of
materials?

o What
grabs
your
attention
in
the
work,
why?


o Do
you
see
any
relationship
to
the
things
you
listed
during
the
description
stage?



Interpret

Try
to
figure
out
what
the
artwork
is
about.
Your
own
perspectives,
associations
and
experiences

meet
with
”the
evidence”
found
in
the
work
of
art.
All
art
works
are
about
something.
Some
art

works
are
about
color,
their
subject
matter,
and
social
or
cultural
issues.
Some
art
works
are
very

accessible
—
that
is,
relatively
easy
for
the
viewer
to
understand
what
the
artist
was
doing.

Other
works
are
highly
intellectual,
and
might
not
be
as
easy
for
us
to
readily
know
what
the

artist
was
thinking
about.


• Questions
to
consider:

o What
is
the
theme
or
subject
of
the
work?

(What
from
the
artwork
gives
you


that
impression?)

o What
mood
or
emotions
does
the
artwork
communicate?

o What
is
the
work
about;
what
do
you
think
it
means
or
what
does
it
mean
to


you?
(What
from
the
artwork
gives
you
that
impression?)

o Why
do
you
think
that
artist
created
this
work?



Evaluate

This
is
a
culminating
and
reflecting
activity.
You
need
to
come
to
some
conclusions
about
the

artwork
based
on
all
the
information
you
have
gathered
from
your
description,
analysis,
and

interpretation.


• Questions
to
consider:

o What
are
your
thoughts
on
the
artwork
based
on
the
three
steps
above
and
why?

o Why
do
you
like
or
dislike
the
artwork
(explain).

o 
What
have
you
seen
or
learned
from
this
work
that
you
might
apply
to
your
own


artwork
or
your
own
thinking?


Art Criticism Worksheet

Artist:


Title:


Date:


Medium:


1. Describe
(What can be seen in the artwork? Facts only)

2. Analyze
(What elements/principles are incorporated in the artwork, why?)

3. Interpret
(What is the meaning of the artwork, based on steps 1 and 2?)

4. Evaluate
(What is your evaluation of the work, based on steps1, 2, 3?)

Chapter 1.5
Motion and Time

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

Introduction
Most traditional art media (e.g. painting) are static, but artists have found ways to indicate the passage of time and appearance of motion
New technology and media, such as film and video, allow artists to capture motion and time

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FUNDAMENTALS
Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts

Moving images are part of our daily life
In the past, our visual experience would be quite different: all art images were still

Motion
Motion occurs when an object changes location or position
Directly linked to time
Artists can communicate motion by implying time or creating the illusion of it

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Motion

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Interactive Exercises:
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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time

Implied Motion
This type of motion is used in static works of art
Visual clues tell us that the work portrays motion
We do not actually see the motion happening

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Artwork: Gianlorenzo Bernini,
Apollo and Daphne
1.5.1 Gianlorenzo Bernini,
Apollo and Daphne,
1622–24. Carrara marble,
height 8′. Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy

Gianlorenzo Bernini,
Apollo and Daphne
The sun god Apollo falls madly in love with the wood nymph Daphne
As she runs away terrified, her father saves her by transforming her into a bay laurel tree
Diagonal lines convey the action
The pivotal moment is frozen in time

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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
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Seventeenth-century Italian sculptor Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598–1680) illustrates the ancient Greek myth
Daphne’s fingers sprout leaves as bark encases her legs
She could no longer be Apollo’s wife, instead becoming his tree
Apollo made the laurel wreath his crown

Gianlorenzo Bernini: The Ecstasy of
St. Teresa

Video:
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Video:
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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Portal Artwork: Camille Claudel, The Waltz
3.8.19 Camille Claudel, The Waltz. Bronze (posthumous edition), 16⅞ × 14⅜ × 6¾”. Private collection

Another great example of implied motion is The Waltz, by Camille Claudel.
9

Artwork: Giacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash
1.5.2 Giacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912. Oil on canvas, 35⅜ × 43¼”.
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York

Giacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash

Balla was an Italian Futurist
Conveys a sense of forward motion
A series of repeating marks in the dog’s tail, feet, and leash communicate rapid movement

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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts

Giacomo Balla (1871–1958) paints the dog’s tail in eight or nine different positions
The leash is an implied line, repeated in four different positions

The Illusion of Motion
Artists create an illusion of motion through visual tricks
Our eyes are deceived into believing there is motion as time passes, even though no actual motion occurs

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Artwork: Jenny Holzer, Untitled
1.5.3 Jenny Holzer, Untitled (Selections from Truisms, Inflammatory Essays, The Living Series,
The Survival Series, Under a Rock, Laments, and Child Text), 1989. Extended helical tricolor LED,
electronic display signboard, site-specific dimensions. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

Jenny Holzer, Untitled
In Holzer’s Untitled Tiny LEDs (light-emitting diodes) are illuminated in
an automated sequence
The messages appear to scroll up the circular atrium, although the text does not actually move

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American artist Jenny Holzer (b. 1950) created this installation in the Guggenheim Museum, New York (designed by Frank Lloyd Wright)
Holzer used this illusion to invigorate her messages and critiques of society

Artwork: Bridget Riley,
Cataract 3
1.5.4 Bridget Riley,
Cataract 3, 1967. PVA on canvas, 7’3¾” × 7’3¾”. British Council Collection

Bridget Riley, Cataract 3
This artwork is an example of
Op art (Optical art)
If we focus on a single point in the work, the image appears to vibrate
We can see this optical illusion because Riley uses sharp contrast and hard-edged graphics set close together

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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts

British artist Bridget Riley (b. 1931) was part of the Op art movement
During the 1960s, painters in this style experimented with discordant positive–negative relationships
This optical illusion grows out of the natural physiological movement of the human eye

Stroboscopic Motion
When we see two or more repeated images in quick succession, they appear to fuse together
Basis for early attempts to show moving images

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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
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Stroboscopic Motion

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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time

Artwork: Phenakistoscope
1.5.5 Phenakistoscope, or “Magic Disk,” c. 1840. Wood and glass with 8 paper disks. Made in France

Phenakistoscope
This device, meaning “spindle viewer” was invented in 1832
Features a series of drawings placed on one side of a disc
Viewer looks through a slotted
disc while the illustrated disc is spinning to see images appear
to move and repeat

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Artwork: Gregory Barsamian, Drum 52
1.5.6 Gregory Barsamian, Drum 52, 2013. Kinetic sculpture/installation:
steel, ureathane foam, sculpy, strobe light, motor. Artist’s collection

Gregory Barsamian, Drum 52
This artwork was intended to be viewed in an environment with
strobe lighting
Kinetic, or moving, sculpture and also an installation
Without the strobe’s pulsing effect, the image would disappear into a blur of motion

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Frame from Finding Nemo
1.5.7 Frame from Finding Nemo, 2003. Duration 100 minutes. Director Andrew Stanton, Walt Disney Pictures

Frame from
Finding Nemo
This movie was compiled from individual frames that were generated using 3-D modeling software
Animator produces sequenced frames, played in rapid succession
Committed to film or digital media
for distribution to movie theaters

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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
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Animation

Video:
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Video:
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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
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Scene from Run Lola Run
1.5.8 Scene from Run Lola Run, 1998. Duration 81 minutes.
Director Tom Tykwer,, X-Filme Creative Pool/WDR/Arte

Scene from
Run Lola Run
The plot follows Lola who must save her boyfriend within 20 minutes
Story reboots three times, each time with a new set of circumstances
Film reinterprets time and demonstrates the impact that a few seconds’ difference can make

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“Movie” is an abbreviation of “moving picture”
Director Tom Tykwer (b. 1965) sets the film in Berlin
Lola receives a panicked call from her boyfriend, Manni
He is threatened by a mobster demanding 100,000 Deutschmarks (approximately $70,000)
Lola tries to save his life, but gets shot herself
As the story begins again, she is partly prepared from the first version of events
Viewer is engaged and can explore the characters in greater depth with each reset

Actual Motion
We see actual motion in artworks that change in real space and time
Examples include kinetic art
(a work that contains moving parts) and performance art
In performance art, the artist’s intention is to create an experience rather than an art object

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Performance art emerged during the 20th century with such artists as Joseph Beuys (1921–1986)
Following his traumatic experiences in the German Air Force in WWII, Beuys performed what he called actions
Actions were self-performed situations in which Beuys would interact with everyday objects; for example animals, fat, machinery, and sticks
By putting common items in new situations, he conjured up different ways of thinking about our world
He once played a piano filled with animal fat that changed the sound and mechanics

Actual Motion

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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time

Portal Artwork: Joseph Beuys, Coyote, I Like America and America Likes Me
2.10.7 Joseph Beuys, Coyote, I Like America and America Likes Me, May 1974. Living sculpture at the René Block Gallery, New York

30

Artwork: Cirque du Soleil performing Totem
1.5.9 Cirque du Soleil performing Totem in Montreal, Quebec, July, 2010

Cirque du Soleil performing Totem
Formed in 1984, this troupe is
a touring entertainment act
French for “Circus of the Sun”
Integrates music and acrobatics, enacted before a live audience

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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
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Artwork: Alexander Calder, Untitled
1.5.10 Alexander Calder, Untitled, 1976. Aluminum and steel, 29’10⅜” × 75’11¾”.
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Alexander Calder,
Untitled
Calder invented the mobile, a type of kinetic sculpture
Relies on air currents to power its movement; constantly changes
Untitled, his final sculpture, is made up of counterbalanced organic shapes

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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
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The earliest kinetic artwork is credited to French artist Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968)
Duchamp mounted a bicycle wheel on a barstool so that the wheel could be spun
American sculptor Alexander Calder (1898–1976) took the name “mobile” from a suggestion by Duchamp
Untitled is made of aluminum and steel; it is suspended in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

Theodorus Gerardus Jozef “Theo” Jansen, Animaris Umeris
1.5.11 Theodorus Gerardus Jozef “Theo” Jansen, Animaris Umeris (Strandbeest #48), 2009.
Recycled plastic bottles, plastic tubing, PVC pipe, wood, fabric. Scheveningen Beach, The Netherlands

Theodorus Gerardus Jozef “Theo” Jansen, Animaris Umeris
Jansen’s sculptures, “Strandbeests,” are carefully designed to appear to move by themselves
Remarkable appearance of continuous movement that looks
like an animal walking

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Portal Artwork: Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel
3.9.8 Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel, 1951. Metal wheel mounted on painted wood stool, 50½ × 25½ × 16⅝”. MoMA, New York

Marcel Duchamp was one of the first artists to create kinetic sculptures.
37

Time
Any artwork that deals with events must show how time goes by
Artists find ways to communicate the passage of time and remind us of its influence

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PART 1
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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts

Time

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Interactive Exercises:
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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time

The Passage of Time
Artists often seek to tell a story
This can be in a single painting
Some artists examine cycles of time

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PART 1
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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
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Artwork: The Meeting of
St. Anthony and St. Paul
1.5.12 Workshop of the Master of Osservanza (Sano di Pietro?), The Meeting of St. Anthony and St. Paul, c. 1430–35. Tempera on panel, 18½ × 13¼”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

The Meeting of
St. Anthony and St. Paul
This painting tells a story by merging a series of episodes into one picture
The entire painting signifies a long pilgrimage over time, rather than a single moment
Linear method is still used by artists, comic-book writers, and designers

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Fifteenth-century painters in the workshop of the Master of Osservanza solved the problem of telling a story in a single picture.
The story begins in the upper left-hand corner, where St. Anthony sets out across the desert to seek St. Paul
Next, in the upper right, St. Anthony encounters a centaur (associated with the Greek god of wine, Bacchus)
St. Anthony is not deterred by earthly temptation and continues until he embraces St. Paul in the foreground

Artwork: Nancy Holt,
Solar Rotary
1.5.13 Nancy Holt, Solar Rotary, 1995. Aluminum, concrete, and meteorite,
approx. height 20′, approx. diameter 24′. University of South Florida

Nancy Holt,
Solar Rotary
Holt’s sculpture intertwines the passage of time with the sun’s motion
At relevant times of the year, the work casts shadows on notable dates set into the surrounding concrete
Center bench is encircled by shadow at noon on the summer solstice

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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts

American artist Nancy Holt (1938–2014) examines cycles of time in her works
Solar Rotary, located in Tampa, Florida, features an aluminum sculptural “shadow caster” perched on eight poles
On March 27, a circle shadow surrounds a marker recounting a day in 1513 when Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León first sighted Florida
The center circular bench contains a meteorite symbolizing the connection between our world and the larger universe

Artwork: Hunting Scene,
painting from Cova dels Cavalls
1.5.15 Hunting Scene, painting from Cova dels Cavalls (Horses’ Cave), Mesolithic period. Valltorta, Valencia, Spain

Hunting Scene, painting from Cova dels Cavalls
Depicting time in art is not a concept that exists only in the modern world
Shows bow hunters as the bow
is aimed; the arrows in flight; and arrows piercing deer

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Artwork: Ai Weiwei,
Dropping a Han Dynasty Urn
1.5.14 Ai Weiwei, Dropping a Han Dynasty Urn, 1995. Three black-and-white photographs, each 53½ × 42⅜”

The three life-sized photographic panels are documentation of the passage of time as the artist committed the irreversible act of destruction.
The left panel shows the artist holding the vase somewhat carelessly
The second shows the vase falling to the ground and the artist’s hands boldly (or shamelessly) in the air
The third photo captures the vase smashing on the ground without any reaction on his part

Ai Weiwei: Motion and Reproduction as a Metaphor for Time

Through time and motion, the artist acknowledges both the antiquity and importance of the object
The images link the old and the new in Chinese art and culture

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Gateway to Art:
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In 1995 Chinese artist Ai Weiwei (b. 1957) created a time-based work that sparked great controversy: he was photographed dropping a 2,000-year-old Chinese urn
Chinese ceramics are symbols of centuries-long innovation and ingenuity
References the Chinese government’s similar lack of care and preservation of ancient objects
Dropping A Han Dynasty Vase has sparked a renewed interest in ancient objects that were being taken for granted by the Chinese government and society as whole

The Attributes of Time
Time-based arts, such as film, embody six basic attributes of time:
duration, tempo, intensity, scope, setting, and chronology

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Artwork: Edison and
Dickson, Fred Ott’s Sneeze
1.5.16 Thomas Edison and W. K. Dickson, Fred Ott’s Sneeze, 1894. Still frames from kinetoscope film. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Edison and Dickson,
Fred Ott’s Sneeze
Duration (length) is 5 seconds
Tempo (speed) is 16 frames
per second
Intensity (level of energy) is high
Scope (range of action) is limited
Setting (context) is Edison’s studio

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Intensity is high because the activity is sudden and strong
Scope is limited because it is confined to a simple activity
Fred Ott appears to be placing some snuff in his nose, recoiling, then jerking forward as he sneezes

Natural Processes and
the Passage of Time
Some artists use biology and organic materials to indicate the passage of time in their artwork (bioart)
Organic materials grow and degrade, so work by “bioartists”
is always changing

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Artwork: Suzanne Anker, Astroculture (Shelf Life)
1.5.17 Suzanne Anker, Astroculture (Shelf Life), 2009. Aluminum, plastic, red and blue LED lights,
plants, water, soil, and no pesticides. Dimensions variable. Vegetable-producing plants grown from seed using
LED lights. Installation view at Corpus Extremus (LIFE+), Exit Art, New York

Suzanne Anker,
Astroculture (Shelf Life)
Anker’s bioart experiments with how plants might react in artificial conditions
Uses LED lights instead of sunlight to provide nourishment
Blurs the line between science
and art

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In her work, American bioartist Suzanne Anker (b. 1946) creates conditions that would suit rare environments, such as outer space
The use of red and blue LED lights reduces the amount of light and energy required, eliminates the need for insecticide, and lowers carbon emissions
Contributes to our understanding of the universe while delivering interesting visual forms

Artwork: Ron Lambert,
Sublimate (Cloud Cover)
1.5.18 Ron Lambert, Sublimate (Cloud Cover), 2004. Water, vinyl, humidifiers, steel, aluminum, and acrylic, dimensions variable

Ron Lambert,
Sublimate (Cloud Cover)
Lambert created a large transparent plastic environment in which water endlessly evaporates
and condenses
Shows how the rhythms of nature become a measure of natural time

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Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts

Natural processes dominate the work of American sculptor Ron Lambert (b. 1975)
The water cycle illustrates the passage of time
We gauge time by how long we have to wait for the next rain

Constantin Brancusi
Umberto Boccioni,
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space
Dynamism of a Soccer Player
MoMA Videos

To learn more about the use of time and motion in art, watch these videos of MoMA lecturers talking about artworks in the MoMA collection:

MoMA Video

MoMA Video
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

MoMA Videos (contd.)
Marcel Duchamp,
Bicycle Wheel

To learn more about the use of time and motion in art, watch these videos of MoMA lecturers talking about artworks in the MoMA collection:

MoMA Video
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Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Chapter 1.5 Copyright Information
This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 1.5

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts
Third Edition
By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

PART 1
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PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios
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FUNDAMENTALS
PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios
Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time

Picture Credits for Chapter 1.5
1.5.1 Galleria Borghese, Rome
1.5.2 Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York, Bequest of A. Conger Goodyear and Gift of George F. Goodyear, 1964. © DACS 2018
1.5.3 Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Partial gift of the artist, 1989, 89.3626. Photo David Heald © Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York. © Jenny Holzer. ARS, NY and DACS, London 2018
1.5.4 © Bridget Riley, 2012. All rights reserved
1.5.5 Courtesy The Bill Douglas Cinema Museum, University of Exeter, England
1.5.6 © Gregory Barsamian 2013. Photo the artist
1.5.7 Disney Enterprises/Album/akg-images
1.5.8 Arte/Bavaria/WDR/Spauke, Bernd/The Kobal Collection
1.5.9 Photo OSA Images
1.5.10 © Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
1.5.11 Courtesy the artist
1.5.12 National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1939.1.293
1.5.13 Photo University of South Florida. © Estate of Nancy Holt/DACS, London/VAGA, New York 2018
1.5.14 Courtesy Ai Weiwei Studio
1.5.15 Rotger/Iberfoto/photoaisa.com
1.5.16 Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-536
1.5.17 © Suzanne Anker
1.5.18 © the artist. Courtesy Catherine Person Gallery, Seattle, Washington
 

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Chapter 1.5 Motion and Time

Chapter 2.7
Visual Communication Design

PART 2
MEDIA AND PROCESSES
Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

1

Introduction
The essence of visual communication design is the
use of symbols to communicate information and ideas

PART 2
MEDIA AND PROCESSES
Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Traditional communication design was known as graphic design: the design of books, magazines, posters, advertising, and other printed matter by arranging drawings, photographs, and type
Advances in printing processes, television, the computer, and the growth of the Web have expanded graphic design to include many more design possibilities, so a more accurate term for it is visual communication design
2

The Visual Character of Text
The ancient Mesopotamians were the first to employ picture symbols in a consistent language system
Ancient Egyptians later created their own version, known as hieroglyphics

PART 2
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In calligraphy, the physical act of writing, the thought expressed, and the visual form of the text become one.

3

Artwork: Section of papyrus
from Book of the Dead of Ani
2.7.1 Section of papyrus from Book of the Dead of Ani, c. 1250 BCE, British Museum, London, England

Section of papyrus from
Book of the Dead of Ani
This written work features Egyptian hieroglyphics
Written on papyrus scroll
Papyrus: made of a paper-like substance created from the pith
of the papyrus plant

PART 2
MEDIA AND PROCESSES
Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
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Artwork: Rubbing of stela inscription, Preface of the Lanting Gathering
2.7.2 Rubbing of stela inscription, Preface of the Lanting Gathering, Ding Wu version (Inukai version), original by Wang Xizhi, Eastern Jin Dynasty, dated 353 CE. Album, ink on paper, 9⅝ × 8⅞”. Tokyo National Museum, Japan

Rubbing of stela
inscription, Preface of
the Lanting Gathering
Wang Xizhi defined the art of calligraphy in China during the Jin Dynasty (265–420 CE)
In ancient China, writings were carved on large stone tablet; visitors could take copies by making rubbings

PART 2
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Although none of Wang’s originals still exists, other calligraphers copied his work through the ages, perpetuating his ideal of perfect form.
7

Typography
The visual form of printed letters, words, and text is called typography
Type first came into existence with Johannes Gutenberg’s invention
of the printing press in Germany
around 1450

PART 2
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He also created a technique for producing letterforms that could be set in a row, inked, and then printed
Letterforms are small cast-metal letter shapes
8

Artwork: Dürer, pages from Course in the Art of Measurement with Compass and Ruler
2.7.3 Albrecht Dürer, pages from Course in the Art of Measurement with Compass and Ruler, 1538.
Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England

9

Dürer, pages from Course in the Art of Measurement with Compass and Ruler
Dürer wrote the first manual to standardize the design of letter shapes
Created each letter using geometric elements (squares, circles, and lines)

PART 2
MEDIA AND PROCESSES
Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
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German master printmaker Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528) wrote The Painter’s Manual: A Manual of Measurement of Lines, Areas, and Solids by Means of Compass and Ruler (1525)
Using Dürer’s instructions a typographer could create letterforms similar to those of the ancient Romans

10

Font Styles
2.7.4 Some font styles

PART 2
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Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

A font is a group of letterforms designed to have a unified appearance
Roman-style fonts were derived directly from the letters chiseled into stone on the buildings and monuments of ancient Rome
Those characters had a vertical or horizontal mark at the edges of some letters (called serifs)
Serif fonts are considered easier to read
Sans serif fonts, or a font without serifs, are the standard font style in electronic media

11

2.7.5 Kok Cheow Yeoh, Hegemony, 2016. Poster design for International Art and Design Exhibition (INAD), Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey
Artwork: Kok Cheow Yeoh, Hegemony

Kok Cheow Yeoh, Hegemony
Yeoh considers relationship between message and visual form
Hegemony means authority or dominance
Refers to the economic leadership of China and the USA
Balanced tension

PART 2
MEDIA AND PROCESSES
Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
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Kok Cheow Yeoh (b. 1967) is a Malaysian-born American typographer.

13

The Communicative Image
Logo: a carefully designed piece of type, called a logotype, that is unique and easily identified
Icons: simple symbolic graphic shapes
Used in place of written labels because they provide an immediate message that can be understood in any language

PART 2
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Artwork: Dutch History Bible
2.7.6 Dutch History Bible, copied by Gherard Wessels van Deventer in Utrecht, 1443, fol. 8r. National Library of the Netherlands,
The Hague

Dutch History Bible
Illuminated manuscripts were executed in monasteries on prepared animal skins, called parchment
After being painted and lettered by hand, they were bound as books
Time-consuming and produced only one copy

PART 2
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During the Middle Ages, European artists combined calligraphy and illustration to craft illuminated manuscripts
The invention of printing technology simplified the design process and made it possible to print multiple copies
16

Artwork: Chevrolet logo
2.7.7 Chevrolet logo, first used in 1913

Chevrolet logo
This logo was first used by Chevrolet in 1913
Originally, the name “Chevrolet” was written across the simple stylized cross (called the “bowtie”)
It now communicates the company name without using any letters

PART 2
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Herbert Bayer,
Universal typeface
2.7.8a Herbert Bayer, Universal typeface, 1925

Walter Gropius,
Bauhaus building
2.7.8b Walter Gropius, Bauhaus building, 1925–26, Dessau, Germany

20

Influence of
the Bauhaus on Visual Design
The Bauhaus was a German school of art and design that operated in the early 20th century
Modernist theory: “form follows function”

PART 2
MEDIA AND PROCESSES
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Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design

Modernist theory, or the idea that the design of an object and the material from which it is made should be determined by its purpose
Although the Bauhaus was initially conceived as a school of architecture by its founder, Walter Gropius, the school worked to establish design ideals that could be applied universally with no constraints on culture or medium
Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe, a former Head of the Bauhaus, is often best remembered for his emphasis on simplicity of design, and his quips, “Less is more” and “God is in the details”
21

Influence of the
Bauhaus on Visual
Design (contd.)
Sought a universal style that did not favor one culture over another
Herbert Bayer, one of the school’s professors, created an easy-to-read, sans serif typeface named “Universal”

PART 2
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Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design

Modernist theory, or the idea that the design of an object and the material from which it is made should be determined by its purpose
Although the Bauhaus was initially conceived as a school of architecture by its founder, Walter Gropius, the school worked to establish design ideals that could be applied universally with no constraints on culture or medium
Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe, a former Head of the Bauhaus, is often best remembered for his emphasis on simplicity of design, and his quips, “Less is more” and “God is in the details”
22

Artwork: Car dashboard
Icon Set
2.7.9 Illuminated car dashboard icon set

23

Car dashboard Icon Set
Graphic images have supplanted written languages in many places, one example is the universal icons that appear on car dashboards
Recognized and understood across cultures
No words need to be printed

PART 2
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Illustration
Illustrations are images created to inform as well as to embellish the printed page
Good illustration is critical in certain fields, where it may communicate essential information more effectively than text or a photograph

PART 2
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Artwork: Morris and Burne-Jones, Works of Geoffrey Chaucer
2.7.10 William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones, page from Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, Kelmscott Press, 1896. British Museum, London, England

Morris and Burne-Jones, Works of Geoffrey Chaucer
Morris and Burne-Jones believed that society should reject rampant industrialization and restore hand craftsmanship
Hand-crafted an illustrated book: illustrations, illuminated characters, and patterns
Enhances Chaucer’s written words

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Nineteenth-century English artists and designers William Morris (1834–1896) and Edward Burne-Jones (1833–1898) illustrated the work of medieval poet Geoffrey Chaucer.
27

Artwork: James Montgomery Flagg, I Want You for U.S. Army
2.7.11 James Montgomery Flagg, I Want You for U.S. Army, recruitment poster,
c. 1917

28

James Montgomery Flagg,
I Want You for U.S. Army
Uncle Sam was a fictional character from the early 19th century
Flagg brought him to life in his poster of 1917, using his own face
Helped to recruit soldiers for World Wars I and II

PART 2
MEDIA AND PROCESSES
Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
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American illustrator James Montgomery Flagg (1877–1960) drew the first image of “Uncle Sam”
The poster was inspired by a similar British poster featuring Lord Kitchener
Authoritarian stare and pointing finger intended to single out and challenge the viewer
29

Artwork: Maxfield Parrish, Daybreak
2.7.12 Maxfield Parrish, Daybreak, 1922. Oil on board, 26½ × 45″, Private collection

Maxfield Parrish,
Daybreak
Parrish’s image is one of the most popular illustrations ever made
25 percent of all American households may have owned a copy in the 1920s
Still influences artists and filmmakers

PART 2
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Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
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Maxfield Parrish (1870-1966) was an American painter-illustrator
Created to be printed and commercially marketed
31

Artwork: Mary Grandpré, cover art for Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone
2.7.13 Mary Grandpré, cover art for Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, published by Scholastic, 1997

Mary Grandpré, cover art for Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone
Grandpré’s illustration introduces
the reader to the main character
Imagery complements the written text
Half-hidden clues in the artwork provide a visual introduction

PART 2
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Mary Grandpré (b. 1954) is a book illustrator
Illustration features Harry Potter flying toward the viewer while attempting to catch a shiny object called a Golden Snitch
33

Artwork: Jorge Colombo,
Finger Painting
2.7.14 Jorge Colombo, Finger Painting. The New Yorker magazine cover, June 1, 2009. Digital sketch using iPhone

34

Jorge Colombo,
Finger Painting
To create his art, Colombo uses his iPhone in the streets of New York City
Passersby do not disturb him as they think that he’s checking his e-mail rather than drawing them
Digital illustration increasingly popular

PART 2
MEDIA AND PROCESSES
Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
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Portuguese-born Jorge Columbo (b. 1963) creates digital illustrations
His work has become well known, and has appeared on several covers of The New Yorker magazine

35

Layout Design
Layout design is the art of organizing type, logos, and illustrations in traditional print media
Essential if information is to be easily understood
One of the main considerations in layout design is spacing

PART 2
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Designers are very aware of white space—the voids that lie between text areas and images—and are careful in its organization and distribution in their layouts.

36

Portal Artwork: Bayeux Tapestry
4.7.5 Detail of the Battle of Hastings, Bayeux Tapestry, c. 1066–82.
Linen with wool, 275′ long. Bayeux Tapestry Museum, Bayeux, France

An example of early layout design is the embroidered eleventh-century Bayeux Tapestry.
37

2.7.15 April Greiman, Does It Make Sense? from Design Quarterly Issue #133, 1986. Magazine cover design
Artwork: April Greiman,
Does It Make Sense?

April Greiman, Does It Make Sense? Greiman’s Design Quarterly #133, 1986
Greiman was one of the first designers to create a major work completely on a computer
Used a self-portrait as image
Imported images to a Mac using
a video import device

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Perspectives on Art:
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April Greiman is an American graphic/visual communication designer
Work done after attending the first TED (Technology, Education, and Design) Conference and seeing a Macintosh computer for the first time
Reimagined an entire magazine (Design Quarterly)
39

Artwork: Toulouse-Lautrec,
La Goulue at the Moulin Rouge
2.7.16 Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, La Goulue at the Moulin Rouge, 1891. Lithograph in black, yellow, red, and blue on three sheets of tan wove paper, 6’2½” × 3’9⅝”. Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois

Toulouse-Lautrec,
La Goulue at the
Moulin Rouge
Poster for his favorite Parisian nightspot, the Moulin Rouge
Free, rounded writing style is as casual as the spectators in the scene
Skillful hand-rendered text and images

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French artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864–1901)
Created using lithographic printing
Spectators watch La Goulue (the nickname, meaning “The Glutton,” of the dancer Louise Weber) dance the can-can

41

Advertising Design
Design specifically created to sell
a product or service
Considered placement of textual and visual elements to unify an advertising design conceptually has become common practice

PART 2
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42

Artwork: Shiseido
Advertising Design
2.7.17 Poster for Hydrogen Peroxide Tooth Powder, c. 1927. Shiseido Corporate Museum, Tokyo

43

Shiseido
Advertising Design
In the 1920s the cosmetic company Shiseido produced a series of elegant designs to promote beauty goods
Integrated traditional Japanese design with European art influences
Type, illustration, symbol, and message come together

PART 2
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Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
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Artwork: McDonald’s
Happy Meal Campaign

2.7.18 Leo Burnett Company, Inc. and Helen Musselwhite, McDonald’s Happy Meal Campaign, 2013

Leo Burnett Company, Inc. and Helen Musselwhite, McDonald’s Happy Meal Campaign
This work is a collaborative effort between an independent illustrator
and designers from an advertising firm
Cut paper relief used to create a three-dimensional artwork

PART 2
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The Leo Burnett Company, Inc. is one of the largest advertising firms in Chicago
Hellen Musselwhite (b. 1963) is a British illustrator known for her cut paper illustrations
46

2.7.19a Conrad Garner, Toronto Maple Leafs Centennial Season Ticket Package, 2016
Artwork: Conrad Garner, Toronto Maple Leafs Centennial Season Ticket Package

2.7.19b Conrad Garner, Toronto Maple Leafs Centennial Season Tickets, 2016
Artwork: Conrad Garner, Toronto Maple Leafs Centennial Season Ticket Package

Conrad Garner, Toronto Maple Leafs Centennial Season Ticket Package
Garner fuses innovative typography with elegant imagery in this design
Each ticket reflects stories from the 100 year history of the team
Developed cover pattern from Maple leaf

PART 2
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Conrad Garner (b. 1983) is a Canadian-American artist, designer, and illustrator.

49

Web Design
Text and image in mass communication has evolved to include interactive designs used on the World Wide Web
Allows designers more freedom to add interactivity

PART 2
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Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
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Artwork: Razorfish,
Taste Re-wind
2.7.20 Razorfish, Taste Re-wind, 2016. Web design

51

Razorfish, Taste Re-wind
This design features a careful organization of text and image for simple and easy use
Allows listener to select music from a specific time period and then customize to own taste

PART 2
MEDIA AND PROCESSES
Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
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Razorfish is one of the preeminent web communication companies in the world
Design work was done for Spotify Internet music provider
Recipient of Webby Award for Best Visual Design – Aesthetic 2016

52

Screenshot from MoMA’s Magritte exhibition website
2.7.21a “Magritte: The Mystery of the Ordinary. 1926–1938,” MoMA, 2013. Screenshot from exhibition website, design by Hello Monday, 2013. Featuring detail of René Magritte’s The Menaced Assassin, Brussels, 1927

53

Artwork: Magritte,
The Menaced Assassin
2.7.21b René Magritte, The Menaced Assassin, Brussels, 1927. Oil on canvas, 4’11¼” × 6’4⅞”. MoMA, New York.
Screenshot from “Magritte: The Mystery of the Ordinary, 1926–1938” exhibition website, MoMA, 2013

54

Magritte exhibition
website, MoMA
Contemporary web designers try to connect the subject to the design
Sounds, movement, and other features are revealed as the viewer enters the site
Mysterious character of Magritte’s art is captured in the website experience

PART 2
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Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
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The web design group Hello Monday created a website for an exhibition of the Belgian artist René Magritte’s (1898–1967) work at the Museum of Modern Art in New York and the Art Institute of Chicago.
55

Color in Visual Communication Design
Color is used differently in print and electronic displays than it is by painters or other kinds of artists

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Color in Print
Most printed color images rely on four separate colors: cyan, magenta, yellow, plus black, called “key” (CMYK)
Four colored inks are printed on paper as dots in a regular pattern (“screen”)
This color printing process is called offset printing

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An image is scanned and separated into the four colors (C,M,Y,K)
The image is re-created when the separated colors are printed in sequence, overlapping with each other

57

2.7.22 Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black ink overlays, showing the resulting secondary color when they are combined

CMYK Ink Overlays

2.7.23 Color separation for a commercially printed reproduction of an artwork by Van Gogh. The image on the extreme left is Van Gogh’s original; the other four show how it reproduces in each of the separate, different-colored ink printing screens

Color separation in Van Gogh reproduction

Color in Electronic Displays
The digital display is illuminated by red, green, and blue (RGB) light cells, called phosphors
The monitor turns a combination of phosphors on or off to produce colors

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If all three primaries are on, the result is white light, whereas using only red and blue will create magenta.

60

2.7.24 Combinations of Red, Green, and Blue (RGB) light, overlaid to reveal mixtures

RGB Light Overlays

2.7.25 Dreamhack Gaming Conference, Bucharest, Romania, 2013

Photograph of Dreamhack Gaming Conference

Dreamhack Gaming Conference
The game Starcraft uses RGB primaries to create dazzling colors
Displayed at the annual Dreamhack computer gaming conference
Digital works have a glow and rich color that bring new sensations to art and design

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Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design

Blizzard Entertainment developed the game Starcraft
At the conference in Bucharest, Romania, teams of professional game players generate vivid animated scenes for audiences that fuse the experience of an animated movie with that of a sporting event

63

Portal Artwork: Charles Csuri, Wondrous Spring
1.4.3 Charles Csuri,
Wondrous Spring,
1992. Computer
image, 4′ × 5’5″

An example of a work that was produced on a computer monitor then printed is Charles Csuri’s Wondrous Spring.
64

Visual Communication Design

Video:
PART 2
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Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Chapter 2.7 Copyright Information
This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.7

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts
Third Edition
By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios
PART 2
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Picture Credits for Chapter 2.7
2.7.1 British Museum, London
2.7.2 Tokyo National Museum
2.7.3 V&A Images/Victoria & Albert Museum
2.7.4 Ralph Larmann
2.7.5 © Kok Cheow Yeoh (www.yeoh.com)
2.7.6 Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague, folio 8r., shelf no. 69B 10
2.7.7 General Motors Corp. Used with permission, GM Media Archives
2.7.8a © DACS 2018
2.7.8b © Lianem/Dreamstime.com
2.7.9 © Annsunnyday/Dreamstime.com
2.7.10 from Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, Kelmscott Press, 1896
2.7.11 Library of Congress Prints, Washington, D.C., Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG- ppmsc-03521
2.7.12 © Maxfield Parrish Family, LLC/VAGA, NY/DACS, London 2018
2.7.13 Harry Potter characters, names and related indicia are © & TM Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. Publishing Rights © J. K. Rowling. (s18)
2.7.14 © Jorge Colombo, courtesy The New Yorker;
2.7.15 Video-computer graphic © April Greiman
2.7.16 The Art Institute of Chicago, Mr. and Mrs. Carter H. Harrison Collection, 1954.1193
2.7.17 Shiseido Corporate Museum, Kakegawa-shi, Shizuoka-ken
2.7.18 Courtesy Helen Musselwhite
2.7.19a Courtesy Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment Ltd. (MLSE)
2.7.19b Courtesy Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment Ltd. (MLSE)

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PART 2
MEDIA AND PROCESSES
Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design

Picture Credits for Chapter 2.7 (contd.)
2.7.20 Courtesy Spotify/spotify.com
2.7.21a, 2.7.21b Website commissioned by The Museum of Modern Art, New York (www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2013/magritte/). Artwork: The Museum of Modern Art, Kay Sage Tanguy Fund, 247.1966. The Museum of Modern Art, New York/ Scala, Florence. © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2018
2.7.22 Ralph Larmann
2.7.23 Private Collection
2.7.24 Ralph Larmann
2.7.25 Photo Helena Kristiansson, esportphoto.com

PowerPoints developed by CreativeMyndz Multimedia Studios
PART 2
MEDIA AND PROCESSES
Chapter 2.7 Visual Communication Design

Chapter 1.1
Line, Shape, and the
Principle of Contrast

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

Art is a form of visual language
Artists use a visual vocabulary (the elements of art) and rules similar to grammar (the principles of design)
An artwork can be analyzed using the elements of art and principles of design

Introduction
Elements of art
The basic vocabulary of art
Principles of art
How the elements of art are organized (the “grammar”)
Two-dimensional art
Has height and width, but not depth

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Line and shape are basic elements of any kind of artwork
Two dimensional arts include: drawing, painting, printmaking, graphic design, and photography
Elements of art: line, form, shape, volume, mass, color, texture, space, time and motion, and value (lightness/darkness)
Principles of art: contrast, balance, unity, variety, rhythm, emphasis, pattern, scale, proportion, and focal point

Line
Lines are the most fundamental element artists use
Lines organize the visible world

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: Spider
1.1.1 Spider,
c. 500 bce–500 ce. Width 150′. Nazca, Peru

Spider
The artwork is 150 feet long
Created by scraping off dark gravel, revealing white gypsum underneath
The lines define the outline of
the shape

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Known as the Nazca Lines
Located on the high desert plains of Peru
Can be seen only from the sky (the Nazca lines were first discovered by commercial aircraft)
Designs resemble symbolic decorations found on local pottery made at least 1,300 years ago
Possibly made using string attached to posts as guidelines

Definition of Line
A line connects two points
Defines the boundaries between planes
Defines shapes
Directs the viewer’s eye
Conveys a sense of movement
and energy

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Definition of Line

Interactive Exercise

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: Giovanni Antonio Dosio, Church of Santo Spirito at Florence
1.1.2a Giovanni Antonio Dosio, Church of Santo Spirito at Florence, (n. 6746 Ar), c. 1576–90. Pen and watercolor on
yellowish paper, traces of black chalk, 14⅜ × 18″. Department of Prints and Drawings, Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy

Giovanni Antonio Dosio, Church of Santo Spirito at Florence
Dosio uses line to define where the ceiling ends and the walls begin
Creates an illusion of three dimensions
Converging lines help viewer visualize the architectural space

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

The drawing and the church are both the work of Italian artist and architect Giovanni Antonio
Line is a tool for describing, in two dimensions, the boundaries and edges of three-dimensional surfaces
Accentuates the patterned surface of the ceiling using lines

Artwork: Filippo Brunelleschi, Santo Spirito
1.1.2b Filippo Brunelleschi, Santo Spirito, 1436–82, inside view toward the apse. Florence, Italy

Filippo Brunelleschi, Santo Spirito

We see the division between ceiling and walls because of the changes in lightness, darkness, and texture

PART 1
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Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

If you compare the drawing with the photo, you can see how accurately the artist was able to conceive and communicate, with line, how the building actually looks.

Portal Artwork: Leonardo da Vinci, Drawing for a wing
of a flying machine

2.1.1 Leonardo da Vinci, ,Drawing for a wing of a flying machine, from the Codice Atlantico, fol. 858r. Pen and ink. Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan, Italy

Leonardo da Vinci’s Drawing for a wing of a flying machine is an example of lines that organize and illustrate an idea.
12

Types and Functions of Line
Contour Line as a Type of Line
A contour is an edge or profile of an object, but is not necessarily the complete outline of a shape
Contour lines can suggest a volume in space by providing clues about the changing character of a surface

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

This type of drawing helps to develop eye–hand coordination and reveal subtle changes in a subject.
13

Contour Line

Interactive Exercise

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: Henri Matisse, Woman Seated in an Armchair
1.1.3 Henri Matisse, Themes and Variations, series P, Woman Seated in an Armchair, pl. 2, 1942. Pen and ink, 19¾ × 15¾”. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyons, France

Henri Matisse, Woman Seated in an Armchair
The drawing was created by almost entirely using contour lines
Solid continuous lines represent complex three-dimensional
shapes and surfaces

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Henri Matisse,
Red Studio

To learn about another artwork by Henri Matisse, listen to a MoMA lecturer talk about Red Studio:
MoMA Video

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields
MoMA Video

Artwork: Pablo Picasso, Blonde Woman in Profile
1.1.4 Pablo Picasso, Blonde Woman in Profile, plate, folio 16 from the illustrated book Vingt poëmes, 1947. Lift ground aquatint, 11⅞ × 6½”. MoMA,
New York

Pablo Picasso, Blonde Woman in Profile
A profile is created by using
a continuous line that follows
the contours of the subject

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Picasso was famous for his ability to describe the shapes and planes that make up an object
He is often associated with the Cubist style, a way of representing all aspects of a three-dimensional object on a flat, two-dimensional surface
19

Types and Functions of Line
Implied Line
Line that can be implied by
a series of marks
An illusion that gives the impression of line where there
is no continuous mark

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Diagram of Actual
and Implied Lines
1.1.5 Actual and implied lines

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Actual lines can be clearly seen as a continuous, uninterrupted line
Implied lines are not actually drawn but suggested by elements in the work

Artwork: Pentateuch with Prophetical Readings […]
1.1.6a Franco-German hand, Pentateuch with Prophetical Readings and the Five Scrolls, 13th–14th century. Illustrated manuscript. British Library, London, England

Detail of Pentateuch with Prophetical Readings […]
1.1.6b Detail of Pentateuch with Prophetical Readings and the Five Scrolls

Pentateuch with Prophetical Readings and the Five Scrolls

This illustrated manuscript shows how line is important in the Jewish art of micrography
Text border appears to be an ornate line drawing
It is in fact an implied line created from tiny Hebrew letters and words

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

The Jewish art of micrography involves the creation of designs using very small writing
The “microscopic” text has been added as a guide (called a masorah) that provides advice about pronunciation and intonation

Artwork: Sauerkids, The Devil Made Me Do It

1.1.7 Sauerkids, The Devil Made Me Do It, 2006. Digital image, 16½ × 8¼”

Sauerkids,
The Devil Made Me Do It
The use of dashes and grids of dots imply horizontal and vertical lines
Title of work is spelled out using implied lines

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Implied line influences the visual rhythms and adds to the excitement of the design
Sauerkids is the name used by a pair of Dutch designers: Mark Moget (b. 1970) and Taco Sipma (b. 1966)

Types and Functions of Line
Directional Line
Artists can use line to direct a viewer’s attention to a particular part of a work

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: James Allen,
The Connectors
1.1.8 James Allen, The Connectors, 1934. Etching, 12⅞ × 9⅞”. British Museum, London, England

James Allen,
The Connectors
The viewer’s attention is directed downward
The lines of the girders narrow toward the bottom of the image, accentuating great height
Background buildings reinforce the same effect

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

This is an etching by American artist James Allen (1894–1964)
Depicts Depression-era construction workers building the Empire State Building
Tallest building in the world when completed

Artwork: CLAMP, Tsubasa RESERVoir CHRoNiCLE
1.1.9 CLAMP, page from the Tsubasa RESERVoir CHRoNiCLE, volume 21, page 47, 2007

CLAMP, Tsubasa RESERVoir CHRoNiCLE

Line can communicate direction and movement
Directional lines focus our attention on different sections

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

CLAMP is a mangaka (group of manga artists)
Directional lines converge in the upper section of the image
Then our attention is directed to the figure at the left who is being blasted by an explosion

Artwork: Frida Kahlo,
The Two Fridas
1.1.11 Frida Kahlo, The Two Fridas, 1939. Oil on canvas, 5’8″ x 5’8″. Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City, Mexico

32

Frida Kahlo: Using Line to Connect and Direct a Viewer’s Attention
A line is created by the vein that connects the two images of Frida
European and Spanish-Native Mexican identities connected by vein
Red line becomes the main element in expressing the story of Frida’s life

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Gateway to Art:
Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

The artist’s connections to her family lineage, to her husband, and to her history of physical suffering are all encapsulated in this work
Other lines that contribute to the overall composition are the strong crisp outlines of the figures and the soft irregular lines of the clouds

Types and Functions of Line
Communicative Line
Vertical lines tend to communicate strength and energy
Horizontal lines can suggest calmness and passivity
Diagonal lines are associated with action, motion, and change

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

The Communicative
Qualities of Line

1.1.10 Communicative qualities of line

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Graphic designers use the communicative qualities of directional line when creating logos
To convey the strength of government or the stability of a financial institution, they may choose verticals
Logos for vacation resorts often have horizontal lines to communicate peaceful repose

Artwork: Carolyn Davidson,
Nike Company logo

1.1.12 Carolyn Davidson, Nike Company logo, 1971

Carolyn Davidson,
Nike Company logo

Diagonal lines express the excitement of athletic activity
This stylized, diagonal line conveys action

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: Vincent van Gogh, The Bedroom
1.1.13 Vincent van Gogh, The Bedroom, 1889. Oil on canvas, 28¾ × 36¼”. Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois

Vincent van Gogh,
The Bedroom
Van Gogh’s use of line gives an unsettling energy
Most lines are strong verticals, suggesting it was not a calm
place of rest
Unease is also communicated through the emphatic diagonals and changes in color and value

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Dutch artist Vincent van Gogh (1853–1890)
The painting may communicate the anxiety the artist felt in the months leading up to his suicide the following year (1890)
He may also have been trying to ground himself by painting the simple room in which he slept

Communicative Line

Interactive Exercise

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Vincent van Gogh in His Own Words

Video

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Vincent van Gogh, Starry Night

To learn about another artwork by Vincent van Gogh, listen to a MoMA lecturer talk about Starry Night:
MoMA Video

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields
MoMA Video

Types and Functions of Line
Lines to Regulate and Control
Regular lines express control and planning

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: Mel Bochner, Vertigo

1.1.14 Mel Bochner, Vertigo, 1982. Charcoal, Conté crayon, and pastel on canvas, 9′ × 6’2″. Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York

Mel Bochner, Vertigo
Bochner uses regular, ruled lines drawn with a straightedge
The repetition and overlapping impart a feeling of disarray

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

American Mel Bochner (b. 1940) is a conceptual artist.

Artwork: Barbara Hepworth, Drawing for Sculpture

1.1.15 Barbara Hepworth, Drawing for Sculpture (with color), 1941.
Pencil and gouache on paper mounted on board, 14 × 16″. Private collection

Barbara Hepworth,
Drawing for Sculpture
Hepworth created four views of
a planned sculpture
The lines are crisp and clear
They combine to translate Hepworth’s feelings and sensations into drawings and sculptures

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Barbara Hepworth (1903–1975) was a British sculptor
Hepworth said, “I rarely draw what I see. I draw what I feel in my body.”

Types and Functions of Line
Lines to Express Freedom and Passion
Lines can be irregular
Such lines—free and unrestrained—seem passionate and full of feelings that are otherwise hard
to express

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: André Masson, Automatic Drawing
1.1.16 André Masson, Automatic Drawing, 1925–26. Ink on paper, 12 × 9½”. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

André Masson,
Automatic Drawing
Masson wanted to express the depths of his subconscious
Automatic drawings look spontaneous and free

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

French artist Masson (1899–1987) would go for days without food or sleep
He believed this would allow him to explore deep-rooted sources of creativity and truth

Artwork: Georgiana Houghton, Glory be to God
1.1.17 Georgiana Houghton, Glory be to God, 1864. Pencil, watercolor, and ink on paper, 9⅜ × 12⅞”. Victorian Spiritualists Union, Melbourne

Georgiana Houghton, Glory be to God

Houghton uses an uninhibited style
Lines are irregular and loose
Overall composition is systematically organized by spiritual forces

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

British nineteenth-century artist and spiritualist Georgiana Houghton (1814–1884)
Houghton was one of the first artists to derive her ideas and images from non-visual sources and depict them in a non-representational way

Types and Functions of Line
Regular and Irregular Lines
Most artworks use both regular and irregular lines

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: George Bellows, Woodstock Road
1.1.18 George Bellows, Woodstock Road, Woodstock, New York, 1924, 1924. Black crayon on wove paper, image 6⅛ × 8⅞”, sheet 9¼ × 12⅜”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

George Bellows,
Woodstock Road
Bellows contrasts the organic lines
of the landscape and sky with
the regular lines of the man-made architectural features

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

American artist George Bellows (1882–1925) created this as a preliminary sketch for another work
The center bottom inscription reads: “all lights as high as possible / get color out of shadows”

Shape
A shape is a two-dimensional area the boundaries of which are defined by lines or suggested
by changes in color or value
1.1.19 Two-dimensional circular shapes

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Two-dimensional figures have height and width, but no depth
They can be seen as simple shapes (circles, squares, triangles)
A three-dimensional object, such as a sphere, is drawn using a circle shape, then shading is applied to suggest depth

Geometric and Organic Shapes
Shapes can be classified into
two types:
Organic shapes are made up
of unpredictable, irregular lines
Geometric shapes are mathematically regular and precise
1.1.20 Geometric and organic shapes

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Organic shapes may seem unrestrained and chaotic, reflecting the never-ending change characteristic of living things
The simple shapes we know—circle, square, triangle—are all examples of geometric shapes
Artists often use tools, such as rulers or computer graphics applications, to create the clean, controlled line of geometric shapes

Portal Artwork: Gerrit Rietveld, Schröder House
3.9.31 Gerrit Rietveld, Schröder House, 1924–25. Utrecht, Netherlands

This is an example of how geometric shapes can be found in architecture
Gerrit Rietveld’s Schröder House is made up of rectangles

58

Definition of Shape
Interactive Exercise

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Geometric and Organic Shapes
Interactive Exercise

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: Miriam Schapiro, Baby Blocks
1.1.21 Miriam Schapiro, Baby Blocks, 1983. Collage on paper,
29⅞ × 30″. University
of South Florida
Collection, Tampa

Miriam Schapiro,
Baby Blocks
The organic shapes of the flowers are clearly distinct from the hard geometric shapes of the “blocks” and red frame
Schapiro calls these works “femmages” (homages to the artistry of traditional “women’s work”)

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

This work is a collage by Canadian-born feminist artist Miriam Schapiro
She incorporates doll clothes, home decorations, and sewing materials
The title comes from a popular quilting pattern
The geometric regularity of the diamond-shaped pattern acts as a foil to the stylized organic floral shapes

Implied Shape
Implied shapes are shapes we
can see where no continuous boundary exists
1.1.22 Implied shapes

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Just as line can be implied, so too can shape.

Artwork: Saul Bass,
AT&T Logo

1.1.23 Saul Bass, Bass & Yager, AT&T logo, 1984

Saul Bass, AT&T logo
Bass uses twelve horizontal lines to imply a sphere or globe
A simple, recognizable symbol for a global company

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

The AT&T logo was created in the 1980s by the American graphic designer Saul Bass
By constricting the width of nine of these lines, a highlight appears

Contrast
When an artist uses two noticeably different states of an element, he or she is applying the principle of contrast
Examples include:
Regular and irregular lines
Geometric and organic shapes

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: Carrie Mae Weems, “Untitled (Woman and Daughter with Makeup)”
1.1.24 Carrie Mae Weems, “Untitled (Woman and Daughter with Makeup)” from Kitchen Table Series, 1989–90. Inkjet print, 41¼ × 41¼ × 2¼” (framed)

67

Carrie Mae Weems:
The Principle of Contrast and Dramatic Effect

Weems exploits contrast in the image by balancing opposite shapes and values
The monochromatic palette, along with the spotlight above the table, adds a level of drama

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Gateway to Art:
Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

African American artist Carrie Mae Weems (b. 1953) concentrates on personal, cultural, and racial identity in her work
In her photograph series Kitchen Table, Weems poses an invented family in real life situations that highlight interpersonal relationships

Positive and Negative Shapes
A positive shape is defined by
its surrounding empty space
(the negative space)
In visual form, positive and negative are often represented
by black and white, but any color combination can work

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

An example would be the words on this screen
The words are the positive shapes that we can see on the negative space of the background
Sometimes the lighter color becomes the positive shape

Positive and Negative Shapes
Interactive Exercise

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Artwork: Shepard Fairey, Obey

1.1.25a Shepard Fairey, Obey, 1996. Campaign poster

Artwork: Shepard Fairey, Obey (installation)
1.1.25b Shepard Fairey, Obey, 1996. View of the posters as they were installed in public

Shepard Fairey,
Obey

Fairey’s use of interlocking positive and negative shapes creates a strong visual impact
As a street artist, he needs to catch his audience’s attention quickly as they pass by
Image is based on Andre the Giant, a professional wrestler

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

The black features and blank white space contrast and complement each other
Andre the Giant was also Fessick in the movie The Princess Bride
Captioned with the word “Obey”
Without seeking prior permission, Fairey posted these images in public spaces as an act of street theater and guerrilla marketing

Artwork: Georgia O’Keeffe, Music—Pink and Blue II

1.1.26 Georgia O’Keeffe, Music—Pink and Blue II, 1919. Oil on canvas, 35 × 29⅛”. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

Georgia O’Keeffe,
Music—Pink and Blue II
O’Keeffe’s abstract shapes
derive from a close observation
of organic objects
Emphasis on the negative
blue shape in the bottom right
of the picture
Positive shape is the pink arc above

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

American artist Georgia O’Keeffe (1887–1986) often used organic shapes found in natural landscapes and flora.

Artwork: Noma Bar, Gun Crime
1.1.27 Noma Bar, Gun Crime, 2009. Digital, dimensions variable

Noma Bar, Gun Crime
The silhouette of the handgun is the positive shape; the tan background is the negative space
Area around trigger becomes a simple image of a head with blood running from its mouth
Communicates gun crime

PART 1
FUNDAMENTALS

Chapter 1.1 Line, Shape, and the Principle of Contrast
Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

The Israel-born illustrator and designer Noma Bar (b. 1973) cleverly combined complementary symbols to superimpose two connected ideas.

Artwork: M. C. Escher,
Sky and Water I
1.1.28 M. C. Escher, Sky and Water I, 1938. Woodcut, 17⅛ × 17⅜”.
The M. C. Escher Company, The Netherlands

M. C. Escher,
Sky and …

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